Desert Solitaire [Book Review]

Desert Solitaire is not for everyone. One does not have to travel too far in the plethora of reviews on this book, initially written in 1968, to find very polarizing views of this work. In some sense, this polarization is also reflected in the book, as there is no blatant theme that ties the individual chapters together. And in some cases, even individual chapters seem to clash with one another. For example, Edward Abbey will discuss how nature should be left alone, where there’s another chapter in which the author kills a rabbit with a stone for no real reason outside of pure curiosity, the “notion to experiment-on the rabbit” (pg. 33).

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Some chapters are purely description. The wildlife of both flora and fauna of the desert. The weather though the desert seasons from sandstorms and frosts to the blaring heat. And other chapters blend this knowledge with both survival tactics and historical accounts of this desert region of the United States.

The industrialization, or at least the attempt, is illustrated in more detail from ‘industrial tourism’ to mining rushes in such an environment that truly does not want to be urbanized. “…..there is no shortage of water in the desert but exactly the right amount…….which makes the arid West so different from any other part of the nation. There is no lack of water here, unless you try to establish a city where no city should be” (pg. 126).

Of course, there are some chapters that are just narrative, and rarely partake in any practical advice and solely exist for the audience’s suspense. This ranges from his attempts to tame a wild horse to his experiences of almost-death experiences in his personal adventures alone in the wild, most of the time ill-prepared.

The only art that you’ll find are illustrations of petroglyphs that are found in the Colorado Basin and surrounding areas in Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona. And these are just illustrations to highlight the start of new chapters.

For real illustrations, well……… you must go out and experience them for yourselves. And for any helicopter parents, you probably shouldn’t give this book to your kids.

Instead of trying to summarize a theory, Desert Solitaire is an alternative method to get a point across. It’s a purely raw method of describing ‘what’ it was rather than a ‘why.’ It’s like a true teacher that forces you to determine your own conclusions from the facts and stories rather than telling you what you should know.

In a way, it gave me a glimpse of what it was like years ago. A time when one went exploring without the safety of cellphone reception or GPS. When one didn’t need to bring about water filters, but learned how to tell a healthy water source from a poisonous one [Note: the ones crawling with bugs are not poisonous]. If it didn’t exist 50 or 100 years ago, it wasn’t necessary for one’s enjoyment in life, and it shouldn’t be a requirement in these times filled with artificial needs and desires [see my previous book review, The Persuaders].

While many may focus solely on the ‘desert’ theme in this book, there is also a deeper theme on ‘solitude’ itself. This is reflected in many of the author’s experiences of both working in a remote national park before industrial tourism and during his personal excursions. “Alone-ness became loneliness and the sensation was strong enough to remind me…….the only thing better than solitude, is society (pg 97).” Solitude doesn’t necessary mean being away from other humans, but the feeling of separation from urban culture. We are social beings, but the beauty of nature does not have to remind you of what one leaves behind to truly experience and enjoy it.

However, as Edward leaves his post at the end of the book, his mind takes a swift turn as he prepares to moves back to the east coast. “A grim business, returning to civilization……Mostly for the sake of private and selfish concerns, truly…..I grow weary of nobody’s company but my own (pg. 265).”

Personally, I always classified myself as a small-group extrovert. I would prefer to be alone than immersed in large, crowded events. But I love being surrounded by a small group (2-10 people) where we can collaboratively interact with physical and mental activities. I’d rather run with a small group of friends than participate in a 5K charity. Hosting a small karaoke party is preferred over going to the bar and fighting for a chance at the mic with numerous strangers. In societies where the massive population densities can seed a sense of narcissism and inability to empathize with those in your proximity, it’s healthy to weed these unconscious reactions…..even if it means escaping from society altogether.

I desire to build friendships and social bonds…..but not everyone is like me. Regardless, everyone finds some level of balance between society and solitude. Even as remote as Edward portrays himself in this book, some his prominent stories involve the few individuals that he is proud to share with you in this book.

 

 

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The Persuaders [Book Review]

It’s been a wonderful summer. The summer in Minneapolis is beautiful. The bike routes are amazing. Backpack in Colorado was humbling. I attended two wonderful weddings this summer. I met a wonderful women, a great workout partner, and a best friend. And I finished some books…..though I never got around to writing them!

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So let’s try to fix that. Starting with the bottom of the pile: The Persuaders.

When you drive down the highway, take a second look at those billboards. Yes, those loathsome advertisements that pollute the natural scenery during your drive. And they are begging for your attention. The art of billboard design is even stretching outside the traditional rectangular frame, which took us long enough to ignore back then.

But look again. These advertisements are there to persuade you. When you think about persuasion, a casual conversation of a quick-witted mind would come to mind. But that’s not what you see. You see majestic mountains, bold colors, and hot women in bikinis. Just like any other commercial of political speech….. logic is no longer there.

The 21st century now consists of smiles instead of numbers, illusions over figures, and pathos over logos. They don’t come at you as a one-shot home-run suggestion, but as a consistent wave of small nudges that slowly shift your viewpoint. This all happening despite your lack of awareness in what is going on. This is the art of The Persuaders.

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This book, written by James Garvey, helps explain the tactics behind advertisements, politics, public relations, and fashion. Many tactics involve not just convincing the individual, but the illusion that those around you also believe these interests. The utilization of the masses allows for “the appearance of an upsurge in opinion on a crucial question” which will “appear to him or her that a real grass-roots movement is growing back home.” Social media is used as a tool to bolster a hidden agenda, just like the fake reviews on any product on Amazon.

While it consists of strong individual, the community as a whole acts as a herd of docile sheep that can be easily moved, incapable of reason or judgement, if the shepherding dogs know how to act.

Emotion becomes the new key to persuasion. A teary-eyed story. An unexpected crime. A tragic death. The news industry is bloated with these stories, and absent of any legible graphs and tables. Emotions grab the attention of the individual deeper than any conscientious thoughts. Emotions anchors an individuals mind; keeps it there in a framed mindset and affects any additional information it will gather and whatever opinions it produces. Even the simple phrasing on how saving vs. losing lives can affect the outcome of how many people volunteer to be organ donors, soon after being exposed to the poetic nudge. Thus, word choice becomes significantly more important than actually being accurate (or truthful in general) in your statements.

The more you are exposed to the works of wordsmiths, the more you are inclined to the ‘illusion of truth.” It starts to build a sense of credibility and a feeling of acceptance by your community. Happy jingles. Waves of smiles. Bolsters of national pride and success.

The other side of the coin is described in the chapter of ‘Retail Therapy.’ The easiest way to grow a company, and the economy as a whole, is to literally get people to buy more stuff. This involves nudges to the consumer an underlying desire to need more, even if it doesn’t actually benefit them. This is notoriously common when a certain group of individuals (gender/race/religion/region) needs to be “convinced” that they need such a product or service.

Take cigarettes. It used to be taboo for women to smoke. However, a social shift sparked by a few crucial events got more women, and thus a more equal distribution of guys and girls alike smoking their share of portable nicotine. However, these events were shrewdly organized by the tobacco company, with the desired to sell goods to the untapped feminine community. Thus, the belief of expanding “women’s freedom and independence” was more of a show of hidden puppeteering conducted by industrial conglomerates to double their sales.

And when we finally have it, there’s always another level of ‘quality’ just around the corner to replace what we currently have. This is most easily observed in anything that “turns on.” Smartphones with improved perks and sensors. Cars with “heightened safety” ratings. Next-generation OLED TVs with it’s 1,000,000:1 contrast ratios. Psychological obsolesce is the marketing trick where what you currently have is no longer good enough. And it goes beyond just technological advances.

A wine glass is a wine glass and doesn’t improve much over technological advances. A clear, thick-walled goblet will easily hold your Sangria just like any other glass. But as you gather wealth, those around you in your new social rank are holding thinner, more expensive glasses. And of course, the wine will “taste better” if each wine is drunk out of a specific glass shape. And it’s possible, for unknown reasons, for popularity to shift to having swirls of color in your glasses. Why you started with your cheap, clear wine glasses …….. you lose the satisfaction of owning these objects, even though they have not lost any sort of practical value.

And fashion…… f@#k fashion. It’s just a bunch of people trying to convince you what to wear. I’m still a victim of it, because I do like to look good to those around me. And I love appearing attractive to my ‘newly acquired’ girlfriend (….don’t ask). But in the end, models and catwalks are just constant nudgings, telling the world that you need matching shoes for your dresses; how bell bottoms are now overshadowed by yoga pants; and why you need this accessories for your clothing.

But I digress……

The last chapter is the author’s summaries of these impacts on our society. It not only hinders our happiness, but also affects our capability of obtaining a self-fulfilling lifestyle. Marketing burns through excessive resources, pushes inequality, reinforces materialistic views, and in the end makes us less happy overall. When we can spend our time on friends and family, we are researching the next purchase and wandering around stores for what we ‘need.’ We grow restless and tired from the polarized politics rather than meeting our neighbors in the middle. And thus, the cold-hard truths in this world no longer has no real meaning……

“As modern persuasion sways us without giving us good reason…… the power of reason over us really does seem to diminish. When we are not reasoned with…..we become less reasonable people, more easily manipulated, more self-interested, more likely to go along with the crowd rather than question what’s being thrown at us.” (page 265)

Bowling Alone [Book Review]

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Bowling Alone feels like a textbook in disguise. It’s thick with 400 pages of reading material and 100 pages of backup references. It’s dense with the work written in ~ 8 point font and completely void of any humor wet your palette. And it’s very predictable. If you don’t want to read the rest of this review, you probably aren’t going to be interested in reading this book either.

You really need the motive to get through every chapter…..and I did NOT.

Of course, this book is not about bowling. The story goes is that the author, Robert Putnam, was trying to study isolation in cities and was interested in how to quantitatively measure this. One of the few ways is to determine what activities one can do alone, something that can be counted. Then he got the idea that people of all ages and types can bowl, and you don’t need anyone to bowl with. One can grab a lane, get a beer, and just bowl while watching the TVs on the far end of the lane. Thus, the term “bowling alone” became a catchy term in his research group, since the decline of bowling leagues conveniently correlated well with his social index values for various areas.

Thus, Bowling Alone, is about how we are becoming less involved in social activities, more isolated from one another, and even more self-centered and narcissist as a community. The major factors include a lack of faith in our current government,  more women moving away from their traditional stay-at-home roles,  and the invention of mass media isolating us from one another. Television is observed as THE #1 cause in these acts, allowing the easy access to effortless entertainment for the masses.

There is a philological worry that as we solve our societies’ problems of resources and the need for humans to work (as the robots do everything for us), the majority of humans will succumb to the effortless pleasure triggers of food, sex, sleep….. and of course television viewing. When that time comes, there’ll be enough media to entertain one for a lifetime without requiring others to make new content. Only the few, ambitious individuals (or maybe just robots) will create the machines and selflessly build the system for the masses, just to fulfill a sense of purpose…. kind of like in WALL-E, the movie.

But back to the book……

There are four sections to this book: What, Why, Why bother, and What next.

What – The individual chapters focus on topics in which we are less involved. And after the first two chapters… you get the idea; we aren’t participating as much without many exceptions. I excessively skimmed the second half of this section.

Why – This describes the cultural and technological changes that may have caused this shift, including the topics I described above. This is the most impressive portion of the book, and it’s interesting to read how an economist filters through the noise and possible exceptions to draw conclusions from highly noisy and multi-faceted environment. If you read anything from this book, focus on this section.

Why bother – There is a value labeled “social capital index” that Robert correlated with numerous benefits both economically and socially. The more you trust and can cooperate with your neighbors, the less you need to invest in security, insurance, lawyers, counseling, etc. When everyone is actively aware of their community, more opportunities are also available to those well connected. Politics no longer have to be solely a money-filled advertising game. But like the first section, the dead horse is beaten thoroughly into the grave. Besides the first and last chapters, just look at the graphs [more at the end].

What next – Two chapters focus on what society has done and can do to improve social capital. There is a long rambling of the 19th century and its workings in society that got us to where we, which we could learn from its mistakes and successes (but I skipped this chapter as well). The last chapter of the book is basically a conclusion about the main steps we can take to become more social and interconnected:

  • Make work places more family-friendly and community centered
  • Reduce commuting time and instead invest that time knowing your neighbors
  • Become more engaged in a spiritual community
  • Reduce your time in front of screens and more time in front of others
  • Increase participation in cultural activities and festivals with art as a medium
  • Heighten participation and leadership in local politics

There. Done. It felt like a textbook; I’ll write it like a little high school report. And don’t feel bad about skipping pages or chapters (which I did for almost all of the third section). There are plenty of graphs that summary pages at a time.

There are literally paragraphs that just regurgitate what you can easily see in the graphs in excruciating detail! Your time is valuable; get out and meet someone. And if you don’t know anyone, I highly  suggest meetup.com as a way to get out and try something new.

 

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A cool note: I moved to Minnesota, which is in the top 5 states in the nation with the highest social capital index. With the others being ND, SD, MT, and VT, I would assume MN is the only one with a major metropolitan area.

And I can totally agree with this based on my initial experience thus far. It’s not “in your face” or anything, but my friends circle is definitely growing at a faster pace than it was when I moved to MI over 3 years ago. It’s that, or I just got better at making friends.

This is what I call “exercising my extrovert muscles!”

Going Solo [Book Review]

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Going Solo is a book that I picked up at the same time that I purchased Bowling Alone. While the latter book is focused on social and community trends from the 1950s-2000, this book covers a bit more into the 2010’s in a different perspective. Both play narratives towards the trend of isolation of humankind. However, Going Solo specifically pertains to the act of humans choosing to live alone without having friends and family as roommates/housemates.

Note: Between the two books, this was the easiest to read and finish (hence why I’m reviewing it first). However, it’s hard to state if I’ve learned a significant amount after completing it.

The first sections of the book are dedicated to the mental struggles on singles due to the social pressures to have a partner.

“No one wants to die alone.”

“It’s sad that you don’t have someone to come home to.”

“Having kids with my spouse is the most momentous achievement I have.”

As a result, society tends to look down upon those who live alone, as if they are inflicted with a mental disorder or curse. On the flip side, employers will discriminate singles and even expect those without a family to work harder because they “have more free time.”

However, as our society has taken care of our social and financial needs, individuals are choosing to live in their individual homes due to many reasons. This includes those that opt out of having a partner or a family. And despite such stereotypes, these individuals typically have a more active social life. This is not just limited to the US with its strong sense of individualism and self-worth, but it’s also present in socialist Europe and many Asian countries with interdependent societies.

I moved to a city with one of the largest percentages of people that live alone. 43% in Minneapolis, MN. And now I’m one of them.

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It makes sense to live by yourself, if you are a young professional just starting out in a new career. But these percentages account for all adult age groups. Of course, it’s not all dependent on the individual’s choice. Including myself, many just see it as (and hope that it’s just) a phase that we go through until we meet a partner we are comfortable with. We no longer have a financial incentive to live with others. Those that are hurt from prior relationships are less inclined to rush back into another one. It’s safer emotionally to live alone.

Living alone also gives those a sense of sanctuary and maintains a sense of self-worth and identity. This is true especially this age where we are so hyper-connected in such an artificial way.

There are also worries for those aging alone. The ugly truth is that women typically outlive their husbands by ~10 years, with those being the most detrimental to their mental health. Those that did not have a partner may have a stronger social circle that can better assist during their golden years.

While friends, family, and community groups are there to support those in old age and sickness, it’s not perfect. Urban centers are working around how to improve infrastructure and programs that are beneficial to solo individuals of all ages. Building convenient, compact housing close to downtown and commercial sectors can catalyze local networking optimal for a healthy community for all its members of all ages and backgrounds.

Why am I living alone?

I’ve lived with roommates for 4 years and a wife for 5 years afterwards. After my divorce, despite the higher cost, I was blessed with the opportunity to live alone. It did feel miserable at first, but I’ve slowly come to appreciate the many advantages that I have never experienced before. I could decorate and plan activities without compromise, and I have more control over the spatial state of my belongings. It brings me peace, not having to worry about coming home to any unwelcome surprises.

 

And if I don’t find a partner, I know that life alone isn’t as bad as other may think it is. I have more control over my life, career, and hobbies. And I always keep life interesting.

The Signal and the Noise

One of the differences between a textbook and a well-written non-fiction novel is their emphasis on applications. Textbooks are well-known for being very cut and dry, with a few generic “examples” for students to practice on. To get a real taste on where these theories are applied, one must venture elsewhere. Thus, if I was a professor, I would recommend a textbook and a novel for my students to read side-by-side.

If I taught statistics and forecasting, I would definitely put this on the top of my novel choices. I’m just going to put it right out there:

The Signal and the Noise is very well written.

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Nate Silver takes some of the most prevalent theories in probability and applies them to our everyday lives. Some of these topics the author has had first-hand experience in, including sports betting and political campaigns. Others topics not in his background are analyzed with similar theories but adapted to their own methodologies. What makes each of these topics different from one another, and how well we can predict them, is about the known data and theory that is applied to statistical models.

One of the most well-celebrated achievements in applied statistics is meteorology. Humankind has come a long way in modeling how the weather behaves based on “initial conditions” and how those will impact tomorrow’s forecast. In addition, we can easily collect essential input data that our model requires (including temperature, humidity, pressure). Thus, we can accurately predict  where and when hurricanes and storms will hit.

This is in contrast to stock market pricing, which the data and theories are very noisy and unknown. It’s one of the reasons why it’s best just to invest in the S&P 500 [what some may call “boring” stocks] than it is to pitch it towards “active investors;” no one can consistently beat the market without utilizing inside information [see my review on the novel Black Edge].  In addition, the stock market will react and change based on your predictions. This will change the price of the stock because you created demand. When one buys a stock, regardless of how good it is, it looks more favorable and the price typically rises. And when it rises, other people may buy that stock. This can result in a perpetuated cycle that can inflate the bubble and continue at the incentive of other’s financial’s interest until the system can’t ignore the truth….and the bubble bursts. Everyone rushes their money out, and the price plummets on a stock that no one wants to buy anymore.

And then there are topics where we are desperately seeking signal. Earthquakes and acts of war/terror are such examples and are covered in their own chapters. There’s no successful theory to understand when these occurrences will, but we can nevertheless theorize insight on how often such events will occur. We can look back and understand how often magnitude 8 earthquakes happen in each area of the US, and this information can give us financial insight on how well to reinforce new buildings in each city.

….. I could write a lot more on the other topics covered, but then there would be no incentive to read the book anymore.

The book does have a lot of insights, and it is never biased. For example, on the chapter on global warming, the author’s two cents on if it exists is ‘yes….and somewhat no.’ There are a lot of side views to each arguments, almost playing devil’s advocate on occasion to truly create a neutral viewpoint. In contrast, this does lengthen the chapters, and discussions can be drawn out at times. Around the last 20% of the book, I’ve found myself skimming a bit more than I felt proud of admitting to. But there are plenty of images and graphs to illustrate the points that Nate wants to relay to his audience. And there are a lot of graphics, roughly 1 image for every 3-5 pages, which is definitely a good thing and constantly steers you back into on topic.

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New Logo

If you have read my blog over the last few months, you may have noticed that the logo has slightly changed. In general, I really like the aperture symbol, and I am constantly thinking of getting a small tattoo of it on my right shoulder blade…. right behind the one with the long scar on the front side from surgery.

Oh yeah, I got my plate removed last November! That was a really busy month….. surgery, interviews, Japan, Thanksgiving. Things are finally starting to settle down.

But anyway, back to the aperture symbol!

An aperture is a controlled opening in an imaging system to control how much light enters the camera. If you open up the aperture, more light comes in, and you don’t have to expose the film or CCD array as long to get an appropriate image. However, the larger the aperture system, the faster objects become more blurry as they get out-of-focus. The smaller the aperture, the sharper the background appears to the camera.

This is why the pinhole camera was the first, and ideal, camera. With an “infinitesimally small hole” as an aperture, a lens system is not even needed and everything is in focus. However, the TIME required to capture one image with these systems makes them impractical for most applications.

If you “google” the term aperture, you’ll notice that most aperture symbols are illustrated with six “wings” (I’m not sure of the actual name of them). This results in the standard hexagon symbol insert as a result. Of course, most optical engineers would prefer a circle instead of a polygon, since the corners of the opening would result in more stray light and changing the f-stop value of your image (making more of the image that is out-of-focus more blurry).

But of course, these wings are never straight edges. Curved wings make a more uniform, circle-light opening. No surprise there…..less parts means cheaper design.

My original symbol was made with 12 wings. However, I thought it looked a little goofy after a while….and made it a little less realistic to the original symbol. I still didn’t want 6 flaps, so I decided to alter the logo to an 8 wing design (the right). However, I probably should change the “overlapping scheme,” so that bottom flap doesn’t eat up so much space. Right?

 

In addition, I initially labeled my logo a “broken aperture.” With each wing set for a different aperture size, it gives a non-uniform opening to the camera. One could speculate that this would make some portions of the image blurry while keeping others sharp. However, the rays entering the system sees all portions of the aperture, so all objects in the camera’s sight would be equally as affected. I’ll have to look into the details sometime and give a more detailed explanation on the impact of a lopsided aperture on a camera.

On a side note….if your aperture breaks, please let a professional try to fix it. Optical components are one heck of a mess. And while I did learn a lot about how the inner working look inside a SLR lens system, including sliders, springs, and numerous lenses, it’s really not meant to be taken apart. A small piece of plastic snapped off and permanently closed my aperture, and a futile effort to fix what is long gone. Not only did the aperture not open, but the broken piece also messed up the gears that control the aperture system.

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Sorry Alex…… I tried.

Sapiens [Book Review]

“What do we want to want?” (Page 414)

That is the question presented by the author, Yuval Noah Harari, at the end of this book. This is not to be confused with ‘What do we want,’ which are our current desires. This is more of a question about the direction our species is going. Once simple inhabitants on planet Earth, the human species has undergone a roller coaster of events that have brought us to where we currently are….and will also suggest where we are headed. And due to these “sudden shift” on a evolutionary time scale, we are confused on what makes us content, how we should act, and how science will shape our desires and expectations.

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Sapiens is not necessarily a history book, but rather a sort of hybrid between social science and evolutionary science on the scale encompassing world history. It will illustrate topics with examples of a few staple empires, countries, and historically known individuals, but most of the book is based on social theories and over-arching trends that are not limited by borders. This involves the shifts from hunters-and-gatherers and the agricultural era to individualist capitalism and imagined communities.

The book starts out with initial social trends that you would expect from the books description: agriculture, money, religion, and so on. Of all of these, Yuval states that “money is the most universal and most efficient system of mutual trust ever devised” (page 180). This idea morphs into how money, credit, and financial trust becomes the building block for how capitalism took over the world. This is how Europe was the powerhouse in the 1900’s, why almost every country works in capitalist markets, and how science was used as a tool to improve its edge.

While we would like to think that Science is just a pure pursuit of discovering unknown knowledge…. but it’s always been a political tool from the beginning of the industrial revolution (when it started to make a major impact). This is because science needs money….. a lot of it! And do you know who has money….. empires do. Biological excursions were paired with territorial expanse. Archaeology was a tool to bind the cultures of newly acquired territories. And ironically, nuclear bombs brought along one of the most peaceful times in human history.

I’m not going to lie…… this book does get dark. It spits in the face of our “accomplishment” and makes us ask ourselves “what is this all for?”

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For examples, one of the topics that comes up over and over throughout Sapiens is that we are biological superstars. In economic terms, a superstar is someone who improves his/her stance at the cost of others. When you look at the overall trend of human’s healthy and safety, it does increase over time. However, the opposite can be said for the other living species on Earth. When humans have spread across the continents, a large majority of species (many of those larger than us) became extinct quite rapidly. Mammoths, giant ground sloths, elephant birds, and many other fellow mammals became extinct even before we started to bake bread. And with every expanse we made, the health of nearby plants and animals have diminished. This includes the cows, pigs, chickens, and other animals we breed, compress, and butcher to meet our newly found expectations of high meat consumption.

But looking back over how we have adapted, overcrowded the planet, and became mortal gods with respect to every other living being on the planet ……. the book concludes on the topic of happiness. From being a biological  design through evolution as strongly community-focused to individuals ripped from these desired bonds in the realm of “capitalistic freedom,” it’s hard to state if we were emotionally better off now than we were before agriculture. With many theories stating that happiness stems from brain biochemistry and societal expectations, along with the mind’s pattern to adjust our current status as the norm, it does ask us what is the whole point of our society’s gains.

Regardless of what happens, the universe will still move along. There is most likely no god or after-life that is awaiting us after we die. We all just fight our unconscious pursuits to push farther than our current state, allowing  our “selfish genes” to do what is necessary to keep making more humans at the expense of our own health and satisfaction. But being gods growing in control over the physics and chemistry that can evolve us to a higher (or even a completely new) species, this brings us back to the question of “What do we want to want?” and how can we give homo sapiens a direction in our future. Science WILL change our futures, but we do have the power to influence on how it will unfold.

My conclusion………..Read this book!

I previously read Yuval’s second book Homo Deus, and I actually now regret reading that book first. However, both books have made a strong impact on how I see the world now.

Unless you’re a strong-minded individual who doesn’t like different view of the world…….Read this book!

There’s a reason why there is 4.6/5.0 rating on Amazon with over 5,500 reviewers.

And of course, if you are human …….. Read this book!